Spreading these proportions over a day will be easier than trying to include something from each food group in every meal. Try to include a variety of foods in your diet.
Fruit and vegetables
A third of what you eat should come from fruit and vegetables, which is at least 5 portions a day. It's easier than you think, with frozen, canned and dried varieties as well as one portion of pure juice counting towards your 5 a day.
Bread, cereals and starchy foods
Another third of your diet should come from:
- other starchy foods
Choosing higher fibre varieties will provide you with slower released energy, and keep you feeling fuller for longer. Eating some of these foods at each meal and snack times will prevent you from feeling lightheaded and dizzy.
The final third of your diet is split between:
- milk and dairy foods
- meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non-dairy sources of protein
- foods high in fat and sugar
Milk and dairy
Milk and dairy foods provide calcium for healthy bones and teeth. The best foods to provide you with calcium are:
Aim for 2 to 3 servings every day. A serving is a:
- small matchbox size piece of cheese
- medium yogurt
- glass of milk
Meat, fish and eggs
Meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non-dairy sources of protein provide protein for body repair. Aim for 2 to 3 portions every day.
Foods high in fat and sugar
You only need a small amount of foods high in fat or sugar. These are concentrated sources of calories and could cause you to gain weight if eaten too often.
Small amounts of fat provide essential fat-soluble vitamins needed for good health. Instead of saturated fats like butter and lard, choose healthier fats like:
- monounsaturated fats, found in olive oil
- polyunsaturated fats, found in sunflower and corn oils
It’s important to eat regularly to help avoid problems like lightheadedness and tiredness, which contribute to your risk of falling. At a minimum, you should be eating 3 meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner) everyday.
As we get older our appetites often decrease. If you find it difficult to eat regularly, eat smaller meals and include nutritious snacks as well. If this continues to be a problem for you, ask your GP if a referral to a dietician would be helpful.
Keeping your fluid intake up throughout the day is also important as dehydration can cause low blood pressure, dizziness and confusion, leading to an increased risk of falls.
Try to drink at least 6 to 8 cups of fluid every day, including:
- milky drinks
- tea and coffee
Drinking alcohol can make you unsteady on your feet, leading to an increased risk of falls. Alcohol can affect memory, balance and coordination and this can lead to falls and accidents.
Some groups of people are more likely to be affected by alcohol and should be more careful of their level of drinking on any one occasion. For example, those at risk of falls, those on medication that may interact with alcohol or where it may exacerbate pre-existing physical and mental health problems.
Low Risk Drinking Guidelines
The Chief Medical Officers’ guidelines for both men and women are:
- To keep health risks from alcohol to a low level it is safest not to drink more than 14 units a week on a regular basis.
- If you regularly drink as much as 14 units per week, it is best to spread your drinking evenly over 3 or more days. If you have one or two heavy drinking episodes a week, you increase your risks of death from long term illness and from accidents and injuries.
- The risk of developing a range of health problems, including cancers of the mouth, throat and breast, increases the more you drink on a regular basis.
- If you want to cut down the amount you drink, a good way is to have several drink-free days each week.
More information about about units of alcohol and how your drinking adds up.
Where to start
Think about how you currently eat and drink:
- what positive things do you already do to eat and drink well?
- what changes can you make that might help?
- how will you make these changes?
- who do you need to talk to?
The Food Standards Agency Scotland provides information on eating well using the Eatwell Plate, as well as advice about what to eat during different life stages