Labyrinthitis is usually treated using a combination of self-help techniques and medication. Chronic labyrinthitis may be treated with vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT).
Drink plenty of liquid, little and often, particularly water, to avoid becoming dehydrated.
In its early stages, you may feel constantly dizzy and it can give you severe vertigo. You should rest in bed to avoid falling and injuring yourself. After a few days, the worst of these symptoms should have passed and you should no longer feel dizzy all the time.
You can do several things to minimise any remaining feelings of dizziness and vertigo. For example:
- during an attack, lie still in a comfortable position (on your side is often best)
- avoid alcohol
- avoid bright lights
- try to cut out noise and anything that causes stress from your surroundings
You should also avoid driving, using tools and machinery or working at heights if you're feeling dizzy and unbalanced.
If your dizziness, vertigo and loss of balance are particularly severe, your GP may prescribe a short course of medication such as benzodiazepine or antiemetics (vestibular sedatives).
Benzodiazepines reduce activity inside your central nervous system. This means your brain is less likely to be affected by the abnormal signals coming from your vestibular system.
However, long-term use of benzodiazepines is not recommended because they can be highly addictive if used for long periods.
A prescription medication known as an antiemetic may be prescribed if you're experiencing nausea and vomiting.
Prochlorperazine 5mg tablets are an antiemetic used to treat the symptoms of vertigo and dizziness. It may be considered as an alternative treatment to benzodiazepines.
Most people are able to tolerate prochlorperazine and side effects are uncommon, but can include:
- tremors (shaking)
- abnormal or involuntary body and facial movements
If you are vomiting, there is a prochlorperazine 3mg tablet available which you place inside your mouth between your gums and cheek.
Corticosteroids such as prednisolone may be recommended if your symptoms are particularly severe. They are often effective at reducing inflammation.
If your labyrinthitis is thought to be caused by a bacterial infection, you will be prescribed antibiotics. Depending on how serious the infection is, this could either be antibiotic tablets or capsules (oral antibiotics) or antibiotic injections (intravenous antibiotics).
Check the patient information leaflet that comes with your medicines for a full list of possible side effects.
When to seek further advice
Contact your GP if you develop additional symptoms that suggest your condition may be getting worse. If this happens, you may be admitted to hospital. These symptoms include:
- mental confusion
- slurred speech
- double vision
- weakness or numbness in one part of your body
- a change in the way you usually walk
Also contact your GP if you do not notice any improvement after three weeks. You may need to be referred to an ear, nose and throat (ENT) specialist.
A small number of people experience dizziness and vertigo for months or even years. This is sometimes known as chronic labyrinthitis.
The symptoms are not usually as severe as when you first get the condition, although even mild dizziness can have a considerable impact on your quality of life, employment and other daily activities.
Vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT)
Vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT) is an effective treatment for people with chronic labyrinthitis. VRT attempts to "retrain" your brain and nervous system to compensate for the abnormal signals coming from your vestibular system.
VRT is usually carried out under the supervision of a physiotherapist and involves a range of exercises designed to:
- co-ordinate your hand and eye movements
- stimulate sensations of dizziness so your brain starts to get used to disruptive signals sent by your vestibular system and then ignores them
- improve your balance and walking ability
- improve your strength and fitness
The Brain and Spine Foundation is a UK charity that has more information about vestibular rehabilitation on its website.
You can ask your GP to refer you to a physiotherapist or you can pay for private treatment. If you decide to see a private physiotherapist, make sure they are fully qualified and a member of a recognised body, such as the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy (CSP).
Not all physiotherapists have training in VRT, so you need to make it clear you require this type of treatment before making an appointment.