Rubella (german measles) is a viral infection that's now rare in the UK. It's usually a mild condition that gets better without treatment in 7 to 10 days.
Symptoms of rubella include:
- a red-pink skin rash made up of small spots
- swollen glands around the head and neck
- a high temperature (fever)
- cold-like symptoms such as a cough and runny nose
- aching and painful joints – more common in adults
The symptoms of rubella usually only last a few days, but your glands may be swollen for several weeks.
Read more about the symptoms of rubella.
When to see your GP
You should always contact your GP or the 111 service if you suspect rubella.
Don't visit your GP surgery without phoning first, as arrangements may need to be made to reduce the risk of infecting others.
If you're pregnant and develop a rash or come into contact with someone who has a rash, contact your GP or midwife immediately.
Read more about diagnosing rubella.
Rubella and pregnancy
Rubella usually only becomes a serious concern if a pregnant woman catches the infection during the first 20 weeks of her pregnancy.
This is because the rubella virus can disrupt the development of the baby and cause a wide range of health problems, including:
The birth defects caused by the rubella virus are known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS).
Since the introduction of the mumps, measles and rubella (MMR) vaccine, CRS is now very rare in the UK.
Read more about the complications of rubella.
How it spreads
Rubella is caused by a type of virus called a togavirus. It's spread in a similar way to a cold or flu, through droplets of moisture from the nose or throat of someone who's infected. These droplets are released into the air when someone coughs, sneezes or talks.
You can become infected if you come into contact with the droplets from an infected person, although it can take two to three weeks for symptoms to develop.
If you have rubella, you'll be infectious to other people from one week before symptoms develop, and for up to four days after the rash first appeared.
You should stay away from school or work for four days after the rash starts to avoid infecting others, and try to avoid contact with pregnant women during this time.
Rubella is rare in the UK nowadays. Most cases occur in people who came to the UK from countries that don't offer routine immunisation against rubella.
However, there can occasionally be large outbreaks of rubella in the UK. One of these occurred in 1996, when there were almost 4,000 cases in England and Wales. There were 12 confirmed cases of rubella in England and Wales in 2013.
There's no specific treatment for rubella, but symptoms normally pass within 7 to 10 days. If you or your child are finding the symptoms uncomfortable, you can treat some of these at home while you wait for the infection to pass.
For example, paracetamol or ibuprofen can be used to reduce the fever and treat any aches or pains. Liquid infant paracetamol can be used for young children. Aspirin shouldn't be given to children under the age of 16 years.
Read more about treating rubella.
The best way to prevent rubella is to be immunised with the MMR vaccine. Children are offered this vaccine as part of the routine childhood immunisation programme.
It's given in 2 doses – the first when your child is between 12 and 13 months old, followed by a second booster dose before they start school, at three years and four months.
Routine immunisation is important because it reduces the risk of large outbreaks and helps protect pregnant women and their babies.
The MMR vaccine can also be given to older children and adults who haven't been fully immunised before.
Contact your GP if you're uncertain whether you or your child are up-to-date with immunisations.
If you're thinking of getting pregnant and you're not sure whether you've had two doses of the MMR vaccine, it's a good idea to check with your GP practice. If your records show you haven't had two doses of MMR or there's no record, ask for the vaccine.
Read more about preventing rubella.
Information about you
If you or your child has rubella, your clinical team will pass information about you/your child on to the National Congenital Anomaly and Rare Diseases Registration Service (NCARDRS).
This helps scientists look for better ways to prevent and treat this condition. You can opt out of the register at any time.
Find out more about the register.